Sort by citations Sort by year Sort by title. Applying this to intervention design, the task would be to consider what the behavioural target would be, and what components of the behaviour system would need to be changed to achieve that. Improving the implementation of evidence-based practice and public health depends on behaviour change. Although awareness of the full range of interventions and policies is important for intervention design, the BCW goes beyond providing this. They were originally selected on the basis of titles and abstracts. Johnston M, Dixon D: Current issues and new directions in psychology and health: What happened to behaviour in the decade of behaviour?. Susan Michie. Abstract. Only a minority of the frameworks could be regarded as coherent or linked to an overarching model of behaviour. Having established the structure of the new framework, the next step was to link the components of the behaviour system to the intervention functions and to link these to policy categories using the approach described in the Methods section. The framework was used independently by RW and SM to classify the 24 components of the 2010 English government tobacco control strategy  and the 21 components of the 2006 NICE obesity guidance . In doing so, one wants to be able to draw on research findings that identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) that, if enacted appropriately, are most likely to effect the desired change. Susan Michie 1, Maartje M van Stralen 2 & Robert West 3 Implementation Science volume 6, Article number: 42 (2011) Cite this article. While there are many examples of successful interventions, there are also countless examples of ones that it was hoped would be effective but were not [, e.g. Interventions and policies to change behaviour can be usefully characterised by means of a BCW comprising: a 'behaviour system' at the hub, encircled by intervention functions and then by policy categories. Behaviours are part of systems of behaviours between individuals and within individuals, with some behaviours enabling or hindering others. LinkedIn. For example, 'professional' includes individual behaviour (distributing educational materials) and organisational interventions (local consensus processes); 'financial' includes individual and organisational incentives and environmental restructuring (changing the available products); 'organisational' includes input (changing skill mix), processes (communication) and effects (satisfaction of providers); and 'regulatory' includes legal (changes in patient liability) and social influence (peer review). The first step to changing behaviour is to understand behaviour in its context, meaning that behavioural science should be at the heart of efforts to reduce disease transmission, and, indeed, all threats to health, the environment and society. The single-headed and double-headed arrows in Figure 1 represent potential influence between components in the system. Under US criminal law, in order to prove that someone is guilty of a crime one has to show three things: means or capability, opportunity, and motive. However, for a given behaviour in a given context it provides a way of identifying how far changing particular components or combinations of components could effect the required transformation. Susan Michie is Director of the Centre for Behaviour Change and of the Health Psychology Research Group at UCL. Indeed, different frameworks may be more or less useful in different circumstances. Google Scholar. A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. Health Psychol. volume 6, Article number: 42 (2011) PubMed Central This paper reviews the methods t… Documents were included if: they described a framework of behaviour change interventions (not specific behaviour change techniques); the framework was specified in enough detail to allow their key features to be discerned; and they were written in English. Michie S, Abraham C, Whittington C, McAteer J, Gupta S: Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: a meta-regression. Differences were readily resolved through discussion (see Additional file 8 for details of the analysis). The former identified three factors that were necessary and sufficient prerequisites for the performance of a specified volitional behaviour: the skills necessary to perform the behaviour, a strong intention to perform the behaviour, and no environmental constraints that make it impossible to perform the behaviour. Flow of studies through the review process (PDF 37 KB), Additional File 3: Reports excluded from the review. Nicotine Tob Res. 389k Accesses. We do not consider these broad distinctions further in this paper. , Professor of Health Psychology and Director of the Centre for Behaviour Change at University College London (UCL), and a member of the UK Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Behavioural Science (SPI-B): 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). The primary practical purpose of research into behavior change is the development of interventions that will be effective, subject to other constraints such as affordability [1, 2]. There are a number of limitations to the research described in this paper. Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based … She leads an extensive programme of research developing the science of behaviour change interventions and applying that science to intervention development and evaluation. The Behaviour Change Wheel, A Guide To Designing Interventions. Interventions and policies to change behaviour can be usefully characterised by means of a BCW comprising: a 'behaviour system' at the hub, encircled by intervention functions and then by policy categories. The definitions and conceptualisation of the intervention categories were refined through discussion and by consulting the American Psychological Association's Dictionary of Psychology and the Oxford English Dictionary. Thus, the BCW approach is based on a comprehensive causal analysis of behaviour and starts with the question: 'What conditions internal to individuals and in their social and physical environment need to be in place for a specified behavioural target to be achieved?' Susan Fiona Dorinthea Michie (born 19 June 1955) is a British psychologist and political activist who is professor of health psychology at University College London. Moreover, the physical opportunity is limited (lack of time) and the social opportunities are also somewhat limited. Sources of definitions of interventions and policies (PDF 10 KB), Additional file 6: How existing frameworks map on to intervention and policy categories. By using this website, you agree to our We have built on this to add non-volitional mechanisms involved in motivation (e.g., habits) and to conceptualise causal associations between the components in an interacting system. These constitute a starting point for assessing in what circumstances different types of intervention are likely to be effective which can then form the basis for intervention design. Within the three components that generate behaviour, it is possible to develop further subdivisions that capture important distinctions noted in the research literature. 'Nature of the behaviour' was identified as one of 12 theoretical domains of influence on implementation-relevant behaviours . When it comes to theoretical underpinnings, the BCW approach draws from a single unifying theory of motivation in context that predicts what aspects of the motivational system will need to be influenced in what ways to achieve a behavioural target, whereas the 'intervention mapping' approach draws on a range of theoretical approaches each of which independently addresses different aspects of the behaviour in question. “COM-B” (Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour), hen and why do people go against their personal objectives and interests for the greater good. 10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_1. 2010, Institute for Government, the Cabinet Office, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group: EPOC resources for review authors. The new framework was developed by tabulating the full set of intervention categories that had been identified and establishing links between intervention characteristics and components of the COM-B system that may need to be changed. 2004, Washington DC, [http://www.psilearning.com]. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. Prof. Susan Michie, Centre for Behaviour Change, University College London . For any behaviour to occur, people need to have the capability — the physical (e.g. Implementation Science, 6:42. Fabiana Lorencatto Centre for Behaviour Change, ... Susan Michie. Handbook of Health Psychology. Analysis of intervention frameworks (DOC 60 KB), Additional File 5: Sources of definitions of interventions and policies. PubMed Google Scholar. Reports excluded from the review (PDF 22 KB), Additional File 4: Intervention frameworks. 10.1093/bmb/ldl012. Implementation Science, 6:42. This includes the MRC- funded Susan Michie, FMedSci, FAcSS is Professor of Health Psychology and Director of the Centre for Behaviour Change at University College London (www.ucl.ac.uk/behaviour-change). Next, reliability of use by practitioners was assessed by asking two policy experts (the Department of Health Policy Lead for implementation of the 2010 English government tobacco control strategy and a tobacco researcher) to independently classify the 24 components of the strategy (see Additional file 1 for coding materials). Thus, categories should be from a super-ordinate entity (e.g., function of the intervention), and the framework should not include some categories that are very broad and others very specific. 2010, London: Department of Health. 2009, 4: 40-10.1186/1748-5908-4-40. It includes habitual processes, emotional responding, as well as analytical decision-making. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. One reason for this may be that these frameworks do not meet their needs. MMvS undertook the systematic review, performed the coding and commented on the write-up. Any one intervention function is likely to comprise many individual BCTs, and the same BCT may serve different intervention functions. Motivation is defined as all those brain processes that energize and direct behaviour, not just goals and conscious decision-making. It is being field tested by a range of staff involved in policy and intervention work applying the framework to develop prototype strategies for specific implementation targets. Dieser Vortrag 1. None of the frameworks covered all of these. For example, an intervention that involved incentivising primary care organisations to prioritise public health interventions could be implemented through different policies such as producing guidelines and/or legislation. Perdue WC, Mensah GA, Goodman RA, Moulton AD: A legal framework for preventing cardiovascular diseases. It must be recognised that there are a near infinite number of ways of classifying interventions and intervention functions. PubMed West R, Walia A, Hyder N, Shahab L, Michie S: Behavior change techniques used by the English Stop Smoking Services and their associations with short-term quit outcomes. Michie, S., van Stralen, M.M. A consensus is emerging about the behaviours … Evidence also suggests that to develop effective interventions and maintain change over time, a multi-level and sustained approach is needed which operates simultaneously and consistently at the individual, community and population level. 2008, Boston Yale University Press. This was done independently by MS and a researcher who was not part of the study team or familiar with this work. The one arrived at here will no doubt be superseded. Mook D: Motivation: The Organization of Action. This should be underpinned by a model of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Thus, behaviour change interventions are fundamental to the effective practice of clinical medicine and public health, as indeed they are to many pressing issues facing society. COM-B is a behaviour framework that is structured and analytical. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) was developed from 19 frameworks of behaviour change identified in a systematic literature review. 10.1089/108729100318118. For example, a specific instance of brief physician advice to reduce alcohol consumption may involve the three different functions of education, persuasion, and enablement, whereas another may involve only one or two of these. In this 'behaviour system,' capability, opportunity, and motivation interact to generate behaviour that in turn influences these components as shown in Figure 1 (the 'COM-B' system). If people perceive a serious threat, then they will adapt their behaviour often to considerable degrees as we have seen over the last few weeks. A scientist’s opinion : Interview with Dr Akira Endo about clusters & superspreading, An expert’s opinion: An interview with Adam Marcus on scientific publishing in times of COVID-19. If everybody — individually — did those, together with social distancing, viral transmission would stop dead in its tracks. The BCW would analyse the target behaviour in context and note that, regardless of what covariation might currently exist, the target behaviour consists of an activity in which capability is not at issue, and the reflective motivation is broadly positive. The behaviour system also has automatic processing at its heart, broadening the understanding of behaviour beyond the more reflective, systematic cognitive processes that have been the focus of much behavioural research in implementation science and health psychology (for example, social cognition models such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour). the knowledge and skills) to enact the behaviour, both the physical (e.g. Interview with Professor Susan Michie, Professor of Health Psychology and Director of the Centre for Behaviour Change at University College London (UCL), and a member of the UK Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Behavioural Science (SPI-B): 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). 2009, 28 (6): 690-701. We are, as a species, highly adaptive. J Phys Act Health. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. How existing frameworks map on to intervention and policy categories (PDF 27 KB), Additional file 7: Frameworks analysed by criteria of comprehensive coverage, coherence and link to a model of behaviour. Within 19 frameworks for classifying behaviour change interventions, nine intervention functions and seven policy categories could be discerned. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and COM-B model was developed from 19 frameworks of behaviour change identified in a systematic literature review by UCL, Centre for Behaviour Change: Authors: Susan Michie, Maartje M van Stralen, Robert West. Most frameworks include common key tasks to … It is important to understand the nature of a problem and behaviour before coming up with solutions; without this, interventions and policies may be ineffective or even counterproductive and lead to other unintended negative consequences. CAS A second example comes from the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC)'s 2010 taxonomy . Their coding data were compared with the 'gold standard.'. Susan Michie Jobs People Learning Dismiss Dismiss. Aside from specific frameworks, there are some broad distinctions that have been widely adopted. Use this list to construct a framework of behaviour change interventions that meets the usefulness criteria listed above. Grimshaw JM, Shirran L, Thomas R, Mowatt G, Fraser C, Bero L: Changing provider behavior: an overview of systematic reviews of interventions. 10.1016/j.pec.2005.06.008. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) Source: Michie et al (2011) The Behaviour Change Wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. 2010, London: Action on Smpoking and Health, Thaler R, Sunstein C: Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness. Failure to do this limits the scope of the system to offer options for intervention designers that may be effective. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. Dismiss. Table 1 lists these and their definitions (their sources are detailed in Additional file 5). 1995, New York; London W.W.Norton & Company. The most parsimonious way of doing this seemed to be to represent the whole classification system in terms of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) with three layers as shown in Figure 2. 2010, 7 (Suppl 1): S91-8. Qual Saf Health Care. There are many reasons in which the intention to behave in a certain way is undermined by other aspects of one’s ‘behaviour system’. Implementation Science Behaviour in context is thus the starting point of intervention design. Susan Michie, FMedSci ... Common tasks and principles in behaviour change intervention development frameworks: Integrative review. Behaviour Change Wheel Coding materials (PDF 6 KB), Additional File 2: Flow of studies through the review process. 2011, San Francisco Jossey-Bass. The first step in changing behaviour is to identify precisely what behaviours are involved—who needs to do what, when, where and how. What role can behavioural science play? Following this, our method involved three steps: a systematic literature review and evaluation of existing behaviour change intervention frameworks, development of a new framework, and a test of the reliability of the new framework. It may appear that some components are more important than others because of a lack of variance in (including absence or universal presence of) the variables concerned in the population under study. 2001, Imahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 3-17. 2009, [http://www.prisma-statement.org/index.htm], Department of Health: A Smoke-free Future: A comprehensive Tobacco Control Strategy for England. How can governments and health authorities achieve the desired behaviours from the public during an infectious disease outbreak? Dismiss. 10.1016/0277-9536(95)00388-6. Susan has 4 jobs listed on their profile. Behaviour at the hub …. 2007, Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C, Lawton R, Parker D, Walker A: Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Seven were explicitly linked to an overarching model of behaviour. While superficially appealing, there are many interventions that this distinction cannot readily classify and it has not been possible to arrive at a satisfactory definition of the distinction that does not contain inconsistencies. 2008, 12 (10): 764S-9S. The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide To Designing Interventions | Michie, Susan, Atkins, Lou, West, Robert | ISBN: 9781912141005 | Kostenloser Versand für … The frameworks were coded according to the criteria for usefulness by RW and SM. People have already made huge sacrifices — some more than others — but they have overwhelmingly adhered to what have been very challenging restrictions. 'Intervention mapping' would suggest that concern be the target for an intervention (as long as a judgement were made that this could be modified using interventions that were realistically applicable). Susan Michie, Maartje M van Stralen & Robert West. 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