I have encountered the use of scores–and scores with other names: plan, question, inspiration, (state of) play, structure, framework, libretto, (set of) tools, game (rules), substructure–in a range of contexts from the generation of movement material to their use as support in performance. What are the closest and farthest sounds we can hear? In this paper I am asking: What is a score? Many artists in dance and theatre use scores in a variety of ways. Yet as soon as she begins to perform, in fact even before she begins, memory and impressions arise for her and these influence her performance. Freeze-dance is an improvisational score that combines freestyle dancing with stillness. According to Goodman, a picture needs to do more than resemble something in order to represent that something. Digital publication: Rachael Jennings Described by Sally Banes in Terpsichore in Sneakers as ‘a warm up done while standing […]sensing gravity and becoming aware of one’s breathing, peripheral vision and balance…‘(1987, p. 66). 6, 7, and 8: To the right going downwards, maintaining the level or going upwards. what is their biggest fear? When we discover a true sense of being non-selective, of having no agenda, in terms of what arises, more is allowed and available and the range and palette of expressive possibilities are expanded. We are able to see the ‘working-through’ of a performance problem in real time even though we don’t know what that problem is. Every week I write a new list of scores. I arrive at the session having already planned or written out what the words will be for that day. [from Alison Knowles - 'by Alison Knowles' see bibliography]. As Goodman suggests, exemplification is potentially much more complex than its starting point as a word or a perceived meaning of a word. Circle the earth scores – An open improvisation might be one without any score at all. In describing what that score could be, he says: It’s a line in space, a change in the light, the body falling[…]It’s a lot of off balance, being off center, the sensation inside an articulation, the speed at which I come near somebody, or at which I go away. I could be attentive to my mass and gravity while dancing on numerous occasions and perceive it differently, slightly or significantly, every time. This has led me to explore the taken-for-grantedness of the utility of the score. Not only are we not aiming to convey the scores, we are not aiming to convey anything specific that could be made into a verbal statement. The term ‘action’ as suggested by Hannah Arendt in her book The Human Condition, is used as a concept with which to think through the dancers’ experience in a shared practice. The exemplification may also be of ideas that are non-verbal, that is, not conceptual. There are many ways in which the role of the ‘mover’ in AM practice supports and even mirrors the work of the performer/creator. As the session progresses, we use the score to discuss our dancing experiences. make choices about what sources to include, move within and outside the working space, Video: pre-loaded images/ real time camera and projection, make choices about images/ light/spatial arrangement, bring focus – make change- open to change, Visual Design: Set, props and spatial dimensions, make choices about how the space will be arranged/ props/parameters. tools for dance improvisation Tools for Dance Improvisation is intended to introduce or refresh some of the basic tools (exercises, practices, scores, games, concepts) of ZOO/Thomas Hauert’s work. The scores, conveyed verbally, enable the sharing of a dancing practice in which ‘meaning’ can be found in the present and is ever-changing. Scores can generate movement material, or it could support us as ‘a prop, a ruse, a pretense’. The scores are not designed to have a particular effect or to make particular changes in anyone’s dancing. We call this warm-up period the solo warm-up. In the answer to that question, I suspect, lies the answer to the question of what a score is and what it does. A solo improvisation a work could be considered to be autographic in that the score and the work would be devised and created by one person. It is also useful to include a finite amount of time. ), the noticing, List B: How or Where? A score is not a map for what to do, nor can it authoritatively define a dance or a work from one instance of it to the next, in the way Goodman describes. A: Writing exercise, complete the following sentences: Collective reading on the writing exercise and combining a selection of sentences from different individuals. A work of art will relate to that which it is exemplifying by both having properties of that thing and referring to it as well. what is the loneliest they have ever been? But a print made from a plate by an etcher is also autographic even though there can be varying numbers of prints made. This kind of work of art can always be attributed to an originating artist. What happen when we get closer or father from a stranger walking down the street? Some techniques are meant to cultivate a group connection or build compositional ideas. 3, 4, and 5: To the left going downwards, maintaining the level or going upwards (some call it low level, middle level and high level). Founded in 1968, her seven-member New York–based troupe, the Laura Pawel Dance Company, performs to commissioned scores played live by … After the solo warm-up, we have a discussion about what happened for us as individuals, particularly in relation to the scores. Following on from the solo warm-up, we work together with a partner or in groups of three using touch as a way of sharing physical information. Dance improvisation is the process of spontaneously creating movement. Throughout my research, I have been interested in how scores work within the way we practice as a group. Often these instructions are nonsensical and apparently impossible to execute, such as ‘take six steps into the light without taking a step’ (in Dempster 2007/08, p. 77). When I write them down, however, I am usually sitting down and not in the middle of dancing. everything with nothing6. What does it do? Other approaches offer structures for performing improvisation. I began work as a dancer in companies performing ‘set’ or choreographed movement and these choreographers used improvisation as a tool for creating that movement. 2 Open improvisation operates without the use of scores, leaving all decisions regarding space, timing, movement quality, relationships, and so on to be made during the unfolding of the performance. In the case of allographic work, the score, produced in the first stage stands for the work produced in the second and ‘the act of writing, printing or performing a text or score is for its part an autographic art, whose usually multiple products are physical objects‘ (1997, p. 17). Other ideas including Claire Bishop’s participatory art and Tim Ingold’s discussion of ‘drawing together’ are explored to define participating in dancing in a studio practice, and to articulate what is happening and how that participation can be observed. The physical history in Cotto’s body has come about through her dancing history and through her practice. Text © Olivia Millard. Gérard Genette, referring to Goodman notes that the categorisation of a work as autographic or allographic is affected by both how it is produced and whether it can be reproduced: In certain arts, [autographic] the notion of authenticity is meaningful, and is defined by a work’s history of production, while it is meaningless in others, [allographic] in which all correct copies of a work constitute so many valid instances of it (1997, p. 16). Danielle Goldman, claims that ‘systems of notation can never adequately capture the complexity of an improvised performance‘ (2010, p. 10). Scores have many definitions, as in Olivia Millard’s piece it states that ‘each user of scores in the dance improvisation finds her own use and meaning for them’. The possibility to dance while ‘not knowing’ exists in our way of dancing with scores. Some techniques are meant to cultivate a group connection or build compositional ideas. Participating or acting in this practice allows ways of thinking, understanding, experiencing, knowing that exist only while or at least because of the participation in this dancing. I've been exploring adaptation of this score for online sharing. All of us were isolated in our homes- so this score is meant for inside your home. One of the purposes that served was to let the dancers know what to expect. Fourth Round 10 minutes- change facings of 1 spot within the dance (this could mean front to … I have experienced dance makers using their scores generate movement to suggest or define an approach to the act of performing. Try to imagine who this person is and what they are doing: where have they just been? What they all have in common is that they are related to physical, kinesthetic or movement ideas. It does not mean the resulting performance ‘comes out of nowhere’ and practice and skill are required. For this exercise I choose a starting point and give the dancers a period of time (sometimes half an hour or more) to traverse the perimeter of the room. One dancer asked me whether, since I always decide upon the scores and how I group them together before the practice session, I had certain expectations as to how the dancers would understand and use those scores and also whether I was open to more information arising as I participated in the practice, both from within my own dancing and also as it was suggested by members of the group. have they noticed you standing here yet? The more we practised the clearer it became to me that not only were the scores not directly shaping the dancing, but that I did not want them to do so. I attended workshops with several improvisation practitioners including KJ Holmes who is a dancer, poet and singer based in New York. In order to discuss how the dancers with whom I have been dancing and I are using scores, I will first describe how we conduct our practice sessions. A score could be almost anything. On other days, I abandon some or all of the scores almost immediately. 2—3). As a large group, it’s great to assign rolls before beginning and give time to develop ideas. We practise in a similar way each week although at the start of each session, I introduce a new set of scores. I really began with a set of action words because I hoped that they might be supportive of our dancing. I would like to believe that there is both tacitly understood and expressed permission for all of the dancers in our group to find their own use for the scores on each day. Here it is useful to work with Nelson Goodman’s ideas about autographic and allographic art and the ‘scores’ that these different types of art use and produce. I have no interest in our dancing standing for or referring to the scores in a way that would be able to be apprehended by a witness. Representation could be described as something which stands for something else. As an added bonus, slow motion is a great cool down and is easy on the joints. It is as though a score is allowed to have authority within the process in its own right interacting with the physical history in the body which also has its authority. Perhaps in improvising dance, choosing what aspect of an idea or a score to exemplify is not as clear as thinking and deciding and then acting. The choice may be blurred, not consciously decided, or may be a bodily response to the perceived meaning of a score. If I am able to allow myself to be comfortable with not knowing what comes next, I am able to be open to possibilities which arise. My use of the word ‘score’, though, is not a term that I decided upon; rather it is a ‘traditional’ word which I have learnt to use from working in practical dance situations, particularly in dance improvisation. These are very physical situations, I can see them and I can touch them (Benoit 117). It is about dancing‘ (Crisp 2011). I share the scores with the group at the beginning of a session, before our solo warm-up. Where does public and private space begin and end? By attending to sensory/kinesthetic impulses, we see what our body is asking of us, to what needs to happen next. Improvisation is not limited to dance but is also part of other performance arts, such as music or drama. Nor did I use my reading of Goodman’s theory to decide what my scores should be. Using scores is a combination of what it manifestly proposes and how it allows or is employed to influence, affect, notice or feed the dancing which comes while using it. The site at which the ‘creation’ is taking place, rather than in the instance of the single author conceiving the score, occurs as the dancers dance with the score. As we then practice being witnessed by another, we learn how to consciously and willingly surrender to the experience of the moment and to be consciously and willingly seen in the midst of doing so. The idea of the small dance resonated with me. The scores are not causal, nor does our dancing represent the scores. you can stand on the bed -or walk across it, without breaking stride. Following are examples of sets of scores from two separate sessions. To represent something is not a matter of copying it but ‘conveying’ it. ‘But to take notation as nothing, therefore but a practical aid to production is to miss its fundamental and theoretical role’ of the score that has the ‘logically prior office of identifying a work‘ (127). It's fun to make up your own- but here are a few ideas: Melody, Rhythm, Spatial Relationship, Movement Language, Contrast (time, space, dynamic), Story, Flow- continuous action/relationships, One focus, Sound Drives, Gesture, Obstacle, Object, Conversation, Kinesthetic Response, Image, One Arm, No arms, Attraction/ Repulsion, No Content, Collaboration, Chaos/Control, One Solo, Face up stage When Still, Speak When Still, Only Straight Lines, Only Curves, Secret, Family, Animal... Rewriting Distance is a long durational arts practice and exchange between Belgian dramaturg Guy Cools and choreographer/dancer Lin Snellng. This paper explores the use of scores or verbal propositions in improvising dance. We warm up by dancing by ourselves, usually starting on the floor and coming to standing over time with the option to go back to the floor. I had not experienced this deep feeling of implicit knowledge around and about improvisation in Australia. During this one-day, museum-wide event, Sarah Maxfield offers an improvisational score through which to investigate the use of scoring in dance and performance. As Warby explains: Deborah’s choreography is articulated by a series of instructions and spatial pathways. Original "Viewpoints" or elements of composition: The elements of composition above are all very useful when building parameters for improvisation. This is the work of the performer as he or she meets an audience. Over a period of a few years, I was involved in a project with Crisp, which she named the ‘d a n s e’ project. Sometimes I have a tight hold on a score for a whole session. A painting is often described as representing its subject, regardless of how much it actually resembles it. It may be written by one a composer, but it can be interpreted in performance by a different artist: the performer. 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