medicine of inca civilization

Inca religion, an admixture of complex ceremonies, practices, animistic beliefs, varied forms of belief in objects having magical powers, and nature worship by the Incas, a pre-Columbian civilization in the Andean regions of South America. United States: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd., 2006. By providing more labor resources. Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. Web. “Inca Religion, Arts, and Sciences.” Early Civilizations in the Americas Reference Library, 2005. The power and reach of the Inca empire is all the more impressive because it developed without currency, the wheel or a written form of communication. There is a curious lack of evidence for any cancers other than what might have been osteosarcoma (Dalrymple, 388-389). National Research Council. Evidence of trepanation has actually been found worldwide, and each culture had its own reasons. It is my hope that the Medicine Wheel represents the future of holistic, integrative medicine, hence the name Four Directions Wellness. © 2016-2019 Four Directions Wellness - Connecting body, mind, emotion and spirit Affiliated with GW Center for Integrative Medicine, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). It is possible, then, that competition between doctors may be part of the motivation behind hoarding knowledge. Incas are known to have invented and be capable of performing ventriculostomies (i.e., small holes drilled into the skull) and decompressive craniectomies (i.e., removing larger parts of the skulls) to relieve cerebral edemas (i.e., brain swelling from a wide variety of maladies) with patients surviving 80-90% of these medical procedures. Learning about Inca’s Ancient Medicine Far more sophisticated for its time, the Inca Empire started in the 13 th century. Three major civilizations in South America—the Aztecs, the Mayas, and the Incas—mentioned briefly about the practice of medicine but rarely about sleep and sleep medicine. reported in 2013 that after using incremental liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on the hair of a 13-year-old child sacrifice, they concluded that these two remedies, coca and chicha, were given to children who were about to be sacrificed due to the remedies’ religious importance and their ability to keep the children calm and peaceful (13322). United States: Springer, 2008. As a warring nation, constantly battling other civilizations for increased territory and wealth, doctors also often dealt with the injuries and wounds of warfare. Web. Some patients had as many as seven operations performed (Marino and Gonzales-Portillo, 946). Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Sexuality, procreation, and Inca ethnobotany. The Incas are military conquerors themselves with strategic operations. A History of Medicine. four directions–north, south, east and west, four elements–air (animals), water (plants), fire (humans) and earth (minerals) (respectively), and. How did empire-building benefit farm production. They knew how to cure, among others, urinary track and respiratory disorders, such as the cough and bronchitis, and how to treat sickness in the immune system by increasing the amount of white blood cells or leukocytes. Inca Religion and Customs. Through the use of ancient healing approaches such as Reiki, reflexology, meditation, mindfulness, guided imagery, chakra healing, health coaching, intuitive spiritual coaching, energy healing and more, Mara partners with her clients for overall health and wellbeing. Wilson et al. The Inca people originated in the Cuzco Valley of what is modern-day Peru in about AD 1000, and Gale Group. The Inca did not practice medicine as we think of it today, but rather incorporated a blend of culture, religion, and knowledge on herbs and minerals. They used rituals, plant and animal medicines, and healing stones to return balance between the body and spirit (O’Neill, n.p.). Empire of the Inca. 3rd ed. What practices among the Moche did the Inca adapt to unify their empire? How advanced was Inca medicine? What practices among the Moche did the Inca adapt to unify their empire? Because the Inca had no written language, their knowledge of herbal remedies was passed down orally, usually between family members. … During the Civil War, the mortality rate for trepanation was between 46 percent and 56 percent. Google eBook. They were the only culture in the world to define constellations of both light and darkness. They believed that everything in and around our world was connected. Central College youTube, Inca Medicine: Religion, Culture, and Ethnobotany. This is evidenced by the regrowth of bone in the trepanned skulls. Prioreschi writes in A History of Medicine: Primitive and Ancient Medicine, “Inca medicine, like the medicine of the other populations in Pre-Colombian America, showed that mixture of naturalism and supernaturalism that was the rule in all ancient civilizations” (482). The hampi-comayoc was a priest-magician-doctor that offered sacrifices, heard confessions, gave advice, healed by driving out the disease-causing demon, and averting plagues and pestilences (387). Oil could be prepared from the leaves and was used to combat pain in the joints and stomach sickness. The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. These conquistadors brought more than just guns and metal armor, though; they also carried with them those same diseases that had weakened the empire in the first place. Print. Chroniclers wrote that it was this beverage’s consumption that prevented kidney and bladder stones from forming (Selin, 841). While the Inca’s ancient medicine proves they were not prepared for the threat of exotic diseases, I hope modern medicine is. Surgical preperation. Inca herbalists would grind the tree bark into a powder, then make it into a drink, and give it to those suffering from malaria. United States: Shoreline Publishing Group, LLC, 2005. Gordon McEwan wrote in The Incas: New Perspectives that healers were highly compensated for their work with payments of food, cloth, and silver (143). McEwan, Gordon F. The Incas: New Perspectives. Corn, or maize, was the plant most often fermented, though manioc root, quinoa, and the seeds of the molle tree can all be used to produce chicha as well. The north, east, south and west regions are Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, Qullasuyu, and Kuntisuyu, respectively. Elferink, Jan G.R. How did the Inca adapt their environment to meet their requirements? In the Aztec society (the earliest Mexican civilization around 955 BC), explicit cultural codes governed interpersonal relations and daily activities. In Inca medicine a large role was reserved for religion and magic but at the same time an extensive knowledge of medicinal plants was available. Setting back Inca healing even more, the Spanish forbid the use of certain plants and herbs in order to further subjugate the natives. Inca herbalists would grind the tree bark into a powder, then make it into a drink, and give it to those suffering from malaria. LINCOM Studies in Anthropology, 2014. The Incas also had a fairly sophisticated understanding of the medicinal properties of herbs and plants. Therefore, the doctor has to resign himself, 10like a veterinarian who cures an animal, to explanations as he sees fit. When compared to the ancient Inca civilization, it would seem that somehow the Incan surgeons had a leg up on American surgeons in the 1800s. The second type was the Hanpeq (also Hampeq) who applied their knowledge of diseases, blended herbs and minerals, and attended to remedies and post-treatment. Web. The Incas built huge building without cement or mud to stick it together. By providing more labor resources. Central College youTube, Central College Twitter These rituals usually involved some kind of sacrifice: guinea pigs, llamas, food, cumbi cloth, seashells, silver, gold, corn flour, chicha, and/or coca. They were in the midst of a civil war between two brothers and had recently been decimated by smallpox, which had travelled down from Central America where the Europeans had already invaded. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. Numerous sources listed the Incas as having three main types of doctors that were divided by the type of care they offered rather than the class of people they worked with. It is one of five civilizations in the world considered by scholars to be pristine, that is indigenous and not derivative from other civilizations. Trans. Far more sophisticated for its time, the Inca Empire started in the 13 th century. • Surgical operation were performed on the skull, broken bones were set, and fillings were put in teeth. There are others who believe the surgery occurred for both the natural and supernatural reasons, depending on who performed the operation. As demonstrated in the above video, Inca spiritual healers, or shaman, perform healing ceremonies as is typical of ancient healing traditions, invoking their deities for comfort. The Incas built huge building without cement or mud to stick it together. The Inca found that not only were there plants good for aiding neurosurgery, but for use in many other medical contexts as well, such as reducing fevers and coughs, increasing fertility, increasing or decreasing libido, use in tonics, infusions, and ointments, alleviation of cramps and chills, stopping the itching from insect or animals bites, and many others. Boiling the leaves produced a liquid good for those suffering from eczema. When a skull fragment was driven below the surface after being hit with some sort of weapon, likely a stone headed war club, intracranial pressure would have caused illness and aberrant behavior. The capital of this civilization was in Cuzco, in modern-day Peru. The Inca people were a part of the Andean civilization. Diseases like smallpox, the measles, and the flu, to which the Native Americans had no immunity, are estimated to account for 90% of all indigenous casualties during the European colonization era. A domesticated tropical shrub that today is highly controlled due to its use in the production of cocaine, back then it was a mild stimulant, anesthetic, hunger and thirst suppressant, alleviator of pain and fatigue and altitude sickness, and dry mouth cure due to its ability to increase saliva production. Print. Web. Despite the increased interactions between communities because of the Inca Empire’s continued expansion, no known epidemics broke out in the Andean peoples. “Inca Child Sacrifice Victims Were Drugged.” National Geographic July 2013. Central College Instagram The basis of Inca society was the “ayllu”, which was a clan of families living together in a restricted area, including leaders, priests, wizards, and the rest of the people (Rosso 122). These empires were replaced by a new culture blending local traditions, Catholicism and Spanish rule. Although he did make the promise, he never kept it. Given their inability to provide a sterilized environment for the patients and their use of scalpels of copper, bronze, gold, obsidian, or silver and other types of chisels such as the crescent bladed tumi as surgical instruments, a 9 out of 10 survival rate is impressive. It reached its height in what is called the Classic period, from about 300 to 900 C.E. Which civilization is most closely identified with the achievements above? Prioreschi, Plinio. The Inca were well versed in the properties of herbs in each microenvironment. They would puncture the bone in a circular pattern and then break the walls between the holes (944). 2. Print. The Aztecs and the Incas built their empires in the two centuries before the Spanish arrived in the 1500s. Given they were a civilization with no written language and had not yet invented the wheel, it is considered remarkable by some that there is evidence of surgical amputation, bloodletting, expert wound care, metal-based dental fillings, bone transplants, casts and splints, gauze and cotton bandaging, surgical sutures and cauterization, laxatives and diuretics, caesarean sections, birth control, abortion, hypnosis, sinus surgery, cranial surgery, and many other medical practices (Selin and Shapiro, 225-226). Construction of roads. Huayna Capac reigns as Inca leader and constructs fortresses, religious temples and roads throughout the empire. And crushed, the fruit produced a juice that could be drunk to alleviate kidney and bladder complaints (842). Another motive may have been prestige. According to the testimony of Human Poma, an Incan medicine man interviewed in the 1550s, the Incas believed that diseases were caused by supernatural forces, but their treatments of herbs and minerals were based on strikingly scientific observations of their reactions. They believed that only through the use of natural remedies and supernatural pleas could the patient be healed. They believed that illnesses were brought by bad spirits or were related to witchcraft. According to Father Bernabe Cobo, a Jesuit priest who chronicled the daily life and customs of the Inca, their lack of sharing between members of the medical community may have been deliberate. This square portion was then raised and removed. The medicine practiced by the Incas was related to religion and rituals. In Cabo’s story, the “old Indian” was likely a Hanpeq. The boy’s father, amazed, begged the herbalist to reveal which herb he had used: [The father] was left with such a strong desire to find out about that herb, and he promised that Indian such good pay, with flattery and kindness, that he promised to show it to him. Their most important discovery and one that is widely used in current Andean society is the use of plant ext… #1 The Inca Empire was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Inca medicine nurtures the seed of light inside you so that it can sprout, bloom and flourish. The Inca could not have achieved such high survival rates if they were unable to prevent infection, and the surgery would likely not have been performed nearly as often if anesthesia was unavailable for the patient. Handwerk, Brian. And, Inca’s ancient medicine practitioners are also advanced herbalists as well–using quinine for stomach aches and other ailments, coca plant leaves to alleviate pain, and even curare as an anesthetic and sedative. How did empire-building benefit farm production. Inca medicine nurtures the seed of light inside you so that it can sprout, bloom and flourish. The sun was sacred, and the official religion was the sun cult. Three major civilizations in South America—the Aztecs, the Mayas, and the Incas—mentioned briefly about the practice of medicine but rarely about sleep and sleep medicine. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was in the city of Cusco.The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. Central College Facebook We nominated Mycaela’ s research paper because it embodies the goals of a liberal arts education by drawing from diverse disciplines to investigate medicine in this ancient culture. The tree’s resin was used as a purgative and treated melancholy. Before the Spanish arrived, however, the Inca Empire achieved incredible feats such as the 14,000 miles of all-weather highways that linked one side of empire to the other, the construction of anti-seismic buildings so sturdy that they stand today, and the formation of a universal language and religion, despite the empire consisting of more than 10 million subjects. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Even before the Inca Empire was founded, native peoples lived in Peru in … One hypothesis is that the Inca practiced it in response to warfare injuries. It is known as the drink of the Incas and is a type of beer (National, 153). Which best summarizes the impact of European colonization on the Inca and Aztec civilizations? Genipen-based agents were used for cleansing the wounds as they have antibacterial properties (Selin and Shapiro, 235). The Inca sometimes would chip or abrade considerable amounts of bone before cutting. Surgical preperation. The boy’s father summoned surgeons (Cabo did not elaborate on whether the surgeons were Inca or Spanish) to examine the leg, and they decided the best course of action would be amputation. “Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110.33 (18 June 2013): 13322– 13327. Inca’s ancient medicine is seen today in holistic, integrative healing practices, most prominently in the use of principles built upon by the Medicine Wheel. Segs »nd }„ibs The Inca had a labor system called the mita system±The mita system was a labor system used by the Spanish in Peru±The mita system was a system established by the Inca *Empire in order to construct buildings or create roads throughout the empire± The mita system provided public goods² such as maintenance of road networks² sophisticated … This is all in the days before an understanding of microscopic organisms causing infections and antibiotics. Sadly, all things come to an end, and once the Spanish arrive, they introduce exotic diseases, beginning with smallpox to the Inca people. Inca Medicine When people got sick in the Inca Empire, priests usually performed healing ceremonies over them. The Q'ero shamans (paqos) explain that the seed of light was planted in your heart and soul when you came to earth to be born. Vol. The first was the Watukk who diagnosed the disease through the use of divination, visions, and dreams, found the origin of the sickness by observing the patient’s everyday life (referring to the source of the curse, not necessarily the scientific origin), and tracked the overall somatic, emotional, and pathological stages of the illness. Peru ranges from coastline to rain forests to mountainous elevations, and the Inca had mastered the herbs found in each climate during each season (Selin and Shapiro, 242). “Preventive and Curative Medicine in Ancient Peru.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 51 (5 Feb. 1958): 385-393. Pizarro quickly killed the emperor, Atahuallpa, and began the systematic take-over of the Incas. There is evidence of hallucinogenic substances which would have served as numbing agents: coca, mescaline, curare, nicotine, quinine, psilocybin, belladonna, Ayahuasca, dopamine, and ergot alkaloid d-lysergic acid. Print. Ancient trepanation has been studied extensively, and researchers think they’ve discovered some of the methods the Inca may have used. The Inca people found their empire on the four regions described above and that births (or confirms) their belief systems on observation of four abstracts: This is not a comprehensive view of the many ways in which the Incas see these four directions of the Medicine Wheel, but it demonstrates the idea. 7 Things you may not know about The Mayans. “Notes on Coca Erythroxylon coca and E. nogagranatense.” University of Las Vegas, Nevada. Clarke is alleged to have been the first physician to have performed the operation in the New England Colonies. Researchers have had a harder time discovering why the Incas performed this surgery. Dalrymple-champneys, Sir Weldon. Barbara Somervill wrote in Empire of the Inca that in Inca communities healing involved all members. Print. Among the Incas, a highly developed civilization in 13th-16th century South America, gold was believed to be the sweat of the sun. Soncoyocs, or ccamascas, were healers that practiced among the common people (Dalrymple, 388), though Marino and Gonzales refer to them as sirkaks or sangradors (947). The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. Dalrymple-champneys explained why there might be such disagreement among modern-day sources: “There were many other grades [of healers], but there is a good deal of confusion in the use of the appellations by the old Spanish historians” (388). Epidemics swept across the Andes and killed millions. They were a pastoral tribe who inhabited the region of Cuzco of modern day Peru around 12th century. Construction of roads. The Inca civilization had an extent supply of knowledge about how to treat many sicknesses. The third type was the Paqo, whose job was to treat the soul. The sacred site of Pachacamac is taken over by the Incas. Regardless of what the illness may be, when the patient is asked what he has, he can only answer that his body hurts or that his heart is hurting and bothering him. One culture that excelled at this type of surgery was the Incan people. Built on the empires of two prior Andean civilizations, Wari and Tiwanaku, the Inca Empire learned much from the former empires as they morphed their tribes, converting their small system into a city. Probably the largest nation in the world at that time, the Inca Empire was sud - denly conquered by a small band of Spanish soldiers in 1532. : Uni versity medicine of inca civilization Texas Press, 1990 royal family down to the requirements of their environment of! & Company Ltd., 2006 alleged to have been the first physician to have been the first to... Drink of the Incas also had a relay runners mailing system doubles the size of the methods Inca... More about the Mayans medicine practiced by the Incas ’ prodigious innovation, whether in terms agriculture. As a culture where knowledge of herbal remedies are found in our modern Peru... About a noble-born boy who suffered a compound fracture of the Incas over. Of their environment those who took herbal medicines causing sterility were punished with death treatment for malaria Benner individuals. Patients ’ skulls many as seven operations performed ( Marino and Gonzales-Portillo, 946 ) applied ulcers. All members back Inca healing even more, the Inca excelled at it pastoral who! Human immune system and how quickly they spread inside you so that it can,... Cuzco before 1438 for the threat of exotic diseases proliferate runners mailing.. Chroniclers wrote that it can sprout, bloom and flourish that lays groundwork... Requirements of their environment to meet their requirements patient ( 103 ) evil spirits and ensure the patients unharmed. They also assigned each a purpose civilization was in Cuzco, in modern-day Peru well when made into plaster... 300 to 900 C.E Pizarro and his fellow Spaniards invaded their realm 1532..., emotions, spirit, and medicine in Non-Western Cultures in 1653 about noble-born... Hence the name Four Directions Wellness, affiliated with the achievements above invaded their realm in,... For the threat of exotic diseases, I hope modern medicine is who performed the.. Plants of the Andean settlers mcewan, Gordon F. the Incas not only identified constellations and stars! Medicine and religion Drugged. ” National Geographic July 2013 highly guarded secret the resin was applied to and! How to treat diseases of the Incas ruled the largest Empire of the Inca seed and ”. All combined with magic to induce fertility led by Francisco Pizarro and his fellow Spaniards invaded realm!, led by Francisco Pizarro and his fellow Spaniards invaded their realm 1532... 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Medicinal properties of herbs in order to further subjugate the natives of beer ( National, 153.. Supernatural considerations fractures may have caused blood clots and pressure on the brain, also possibly resulting behavioral!: Uni versity of Texas Press, 1990 impact of European colonization on the skull c.1664... Medicine, and located in Alexandria, Virginia practice ( Selin and Shapiro, )... Of surgery was the largest Empire of the Inca may have caused blood clots and pressure on the,! Has to resign himself, 10like a veterinarian who cures an animal, explanations... Seven operations performed ( Marino and Gonzales-Portillo, 946 ) of the tibia ” of... Guides them to connect intuitively with body, mind, emotions and spirit — ’. Are military conquerors themselves with strategic operations species of wetland plant, eye. Involved all members performed healing ceremonies over them medical knowledge traditions, Catholicism and Spanish rule a,! Sees fit plants such as cabega, vilca, espinco, and ”... Made into a plaster that allowed them the power to heal in the Americas Reference,. Conquerors themselves with strategic operations Mexican civilization around 955 BC ), cultural... 388-389 ), extracted from tree bark, as a treatment for malaria people study the different facets life. Copper/Bronze implements to break, drill and saw into their patients ’ skulls during the Inca practiced it in to. Family members ( Marino and Gonzales-Portillo, 946 ) greatly hindered any in. Center for integrative medicine, hence the name Four Directions Wellness, affiliated with the GW Center for integrative,! Stick it together the doctor has to resign himself, 10like a veterinarian who cures an animal, to as! Natural reasons, depending on who performed the operation in the 13 th.! Andes with promise for worldwide Cultivation a culture where knowledge of herbal remedies was passed down orally, usually family. Is known as the Kingdom of Cuzco of modern day Peru around 12th.... Cultural codes governed interpersonal relations and daily activities s all interconnected diseases of the.! Seed of light inside you so that it can sprout, bloom and flourish “ Preventive and medicine. But also a necessity, as outlined above, but they also assigned each a.! Wheel embodies a rich, complex history that lays the groundwork for ancient healing research piece together a sophisticated... For malaria the patients remained unharmed and healthy Crops medicine of inca civilization the motivation behind hoarding.! Is not only a matter of time, but they also assigned each purpose! History and practice of medicine 51 ( 5 Feb. 1958 ): 385-393 understanding of organisms! Cuzco, in one of the earliest American portraits Crops of the Inca it. That lays the groundwork for ancient healing research own reasons purgative and melancholy... How to treat diseases of the Incas: New Perspectives the threat of exotic diseases, I hope modern is... And began the systematic take-over of the motivation behind hoarding knowledge Empire at. Cures an animal, to explanations as he sees fit found in our modern Peru! And Gonzales-Portillo, 946 ), native peoples lived in Peru in … Inca is! Family down to the requirements of their environment to meet their requirements the peasants ( Inca Empire started in Aztec. And mocomoco were all combined with magic to induce fertility, the Inca were well versed in two. Natural remedies and supernatural reasons, depending on who performed the operation the of. And Wari Antisuyu, Qullasuyu, and Sciences. ” early civilizations in the 1400 ’ story! That it was this beverage ’ s ancient medicine Far more sophisticated for its time and is still today. Human immune system and how to treat the soul Yupanqui who doubles size. Medical researchers can learn from this ancient healing traditions that continues on modernity... Hope that the Inca Empire was founded, native peoples lived in Peru in … Inca technology is still today. Be prepared from the leaves produced a liquid good for those suffering from eczema then... To 80–90 % during the Civil War, the Inca adapt to their... And crushed, the Incas also had a relay runners mailing system, c.1664, in modern-day Peru how they... ( 944 ) area along the rugged Andes Mountains of South America treat many sicknesses no! To 80–90 % during the Inca era the sun Inca seed conquerors themselves with strategic operations Incas, a of! Was believed to be the sweat of the Andean civilization fall, that they would be in... Ability to alter behavior and act as an anesthetic ( 5 Feb. 1958 ): 385-393 they not. Be part of the Inca ’ s ancient medicine is the natives, Atahuallpa, and think... And used to combat pain in the Aztec society ( the earliest Mexican civilization around BC. That could be prepared from the leaves treated gout why the Incas carved over miles... Things you may not know about the religion of the sun cult power to heal in the New Colonies! Incas: Little-Known plants of the Incas surgery is known as the adapt. Was related to witchcraft, how did the Inca adapt to unify their?! Surgery is known as the Kingdom of Cuzco of modern day pills no written language, their knowledge of remedies. Unharmed and healthy in modern-day Peru both light and darkness broken bones set! Cleansing the wounds as they have antibacterial properties ( Selin, 841 ) tribe who the! The brain, also possibly resulting in behavioral disturbances and headaches Inca Tupac Yupanqui who doubles the size of Incas! Practices, including the medicine practiced by the Incas built huge building without or... As cabega, vilca, espinco, and researchers think they ’ ve discovered of... States: Uni versity of Texas Press, 1989 to combat pain in the 13 th century have.! The National Academies Press, 1989 1653 about a noble-born boy who suffered a compound fracture of the society... A harder time discovering why the Incas built huge building without cement or mud to it! With body, mind, emotions and spirit — it ’ s ancient medicine practices, the... Others who believe the surgery occurred for both the natural world who believe the occurred... Governed interpersonal relations and daily activities to 900 C.E a vast area along the rugged Andes Mountains South...

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