It depends on liquidity. When the coefficients of one variable are opposites you add the equations to eliminate a variable and when the coefficients of one variable are equal you subtract the equations to eliminate a variable. For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. Maybe you're wanting to figure the slope of a drive way, a sanitary sewer pipe, a parking lot, a handicap accessible ramp, or maybe even the slope of a ditch. Figure 5. The resulting bitstream is digitally filtered to produce n-bit data at a rate less than half the sampling clock but much higher than twice the maximum signal bandwidth. With the counter initially set to zero, the final counter value is proportional to the input voltage. What is the significance of the name dual slope method? FIGURE 8.13. The slope must be graded to a maximum of no more than a one foot vertical rise for every 1.5 feet of horizontal distance. The execution time is limited only by the settling time of the comparators, but the number of comparators rapidly becomes unwieldy if more than 8 bits of resolution (255 comparators) is needed. In such cases the high accuracy that can be achieved with this approach is of primary importance. The gas then exits the top of the slug catcher and flows to the plant inlet separator via a pressure control valve, which reduces the pressure of the gas, and further condenses water and some of the heavier hydrocarbons. ADC output can be sent over long distances. From a structural standpoint, low-slump concrete is good. In the second phase, a reference voltage is integrated until the output of the integrator is returned to zero. Its main disadvantage is a slow conversion rate, often in the range of 10 samples/second. b) voltage halves with clock input Hence (t2 – t1)/t1 is proportional to Vx/Vr The output binary count for the time interval (t2 – t1) is thus proportional to Vx, the input voltage. The voltage gain is given by our basic equation for noninverting amplifiers. Note that it has been assumed that all liquids (condensate and water) are collected and sent to an inlet three-phase separator, although it is possible to separate condensate and water at the fingers directly. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. d) time-period We know that negligible current flows in or out of the (+) terminal of the op amp. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. If the MSB of the counter is high, then the switch connects the negative reference voltage to the ramp generator input. They are commonly used in digital voltmeters (DVMs) where their resolution is measured in display digits (4-1/2 digits = ±19999 counts or approximately 15 bits). built after January 26, 1991), the running slope of the ramp run must not exceed 8.33 percent. In the elimination method you either add or subtract the equations to get an equation in one variable. View Answer, 8. When compared to other types of ADC techniques, the dual-slope method is slow but is quite adequate for a digital voltmeter used for laboratory measurements. Figure 6-81:. The input voltage to the ramp is switch-selected as either the analog voltage to be converted (positive) or a fixed, negative reference voltage. Stakes, marking various road design points, are typically obliterated during the clearing and grubbing phase. During this interval the counter is again allowed to run up from zero. large errors possible due to noises. Knowing a vehicle’s approach angle and departure angle clearances will make negotiating obstacles off-road a lot easier. However, vendors should be requested to provide detailed design guidelines. Architecture of dual-slope A/D converter. A microcontroller generates the pulse width modulated digital signal which is converted into a floating triangle. In fact, the slug catcher provides temporary storage for any surges (slugs) in liquid flows and roughly separates the gas from the liquids. Conversion accuracy is independent of both the capacitance and the clock frequency, because they affect both the up-slope and the down-slope by the same ratio. The major disadvantage is that the charging and discharging of capacitors takes a relatively long time. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. c) three Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. This increased immunity stems from the fact that errors introduced during the positive slope will be largely offset by similar errors during the negative slope. Fingers with dual slope and three distinct sections: gas–liquid separation, intermediate and storage sections. The selection of components for the integrator and oscillator in a dual slope converter is much less critical than for the single-slope unit. As nouns the difference between ramp and slope is that ramp is an inclined surface that connects two levels; an incline or ramp can be an american plant, , related to the onion; a wild leek while slope is an area of ground that tends evenly upward or downward. Figure 2. • Control of inflowing water from hill side slopes is a critical factor in design of such landfills. This establishes the initial slope of the charge on C. If we can maintain a constant current, we will maintain a linear slope across C. Now let us examine the circuit condition after capacitor C has accumulated 1 volt of charge (positive on top). With appropriate circuitry, bipolar voltages can also be measured. View Answer, 3. A pipe-type slug catcher consists of several long pieces of pipe (fingers), which together form the buffer volume to store the largest slugs expected from the upstream system. Michael J. Demler, in High-Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion, 1991. The length of this section will promote a stratified flow pattern and permit primary separation to occur. An integrating ADC (also dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) applies the unknown input voltage to the input of an integrator and allows the voltage to ramp for a fixed time period (the run-up period). c) current The counter is likewise divided into two sections, one for the MSBs and one for the LSBs. For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. Typically used for video conversion and digital oscilloscopes. When the ramp gradient increased, the L4/5 compression forces increased in both pushing and pulling (p < 0.001) Shear forces increased in pulling and decreased in pushing in all tasks. Good question Lets start with the method of double integration. Ideally liquid droplets, 600 micron and below, will be removed from the gas disengaged into the gas risers, which are located at the end of this section. Errors caused by bias currents and the offset voltages of the integrating amplifier and the comparator as well as gain errors can be canceled by using additional charge/discharge cycles to measure “zero” and “full-scale” and using the results to digitally correct the initial measurement, as in the quad-slope architecture. Various materials are used depending on the desired or necessary characteristics of your site. Because the slug catcher is the first element in the gas processing plant, determining its proper size is vital to the operation of the entire plant. The slope-area method consists of using the slope of the water surface in a uniform reach of channel and the average cross-sectional area of that reach to give a rate of discharge. The minimum width should be 0.90 m. 3.4 Slope . One step that can be taken to speed up the process is to use a triple-ramp approach. On receipt of a start conversion signal from the main control system (generally a microprocessor), the control unit will reset the counter to 0 and release (i.e., cut off) Q1. ... 3.4 Slope . Vegetative stabilization methods are preferred on flatter slopes and that the use of stone rip-rap should generally be limited to slopes greater than one vertical to three horizontal, where vegetative stabilization methods are not as effective. 3) Slopes over 8% will either require vertical curves or … The ability to manage an incline is related to both its slope and its length. The value of the capacitor and conversion clock do not affect conversion accuracy, since they act equivalently on the up-slope and down-slope. It also has the ability to achieve a good accuracy without having to put extreme requirements on the components stability. If the ramp is too flat the rear axle of the towing vehicle can end up in the water, which is undesireable (if you have ever spent $1000 to fix a rear end, like me, you understand why). Pipe-type slug catchers are frequently less expensive than vessel-type slug catchers of the same capacity due to thinner wall requirements of smaller pipe diameter. The schematic diagram of a dual slope integrator is shown in Figure 7.11(a) and the process is illustrated by the plot of the voltage at the output of the integrator in Figure 7.11(b). As shown in Figures 4-10a and 4-10b, the voltage to be measured (Vx) is input to an integrator, charging the capacitor for a fixed time interval t1, which corresponds to a certain number of clock cycles. My ramp is a 6ft long 2x8 going from that to the ground. Ramp Slope Calculators for Motorcycles, Mobility Scooters, Lawnmowers & More! Pyramat near the top of zone 2 in August of 2000. The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. d) it has two outputs What is the effect of the capacitor on the output? What is the output voltage in a dual slope integrating type DVM? The analog portion of such a system is manufactured by National Semiconductor Corporation in the form of an LF12300 integrated circuit. The discharge will be linear, and the rate will be determined by the value of the negative reference voltage. a) True 1-1. This set of Electrical Measurements & Measuring Instruments Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Dual Slope Integrating Type DVM”. There are several different techniques for taking an analogue signal and creating a series of digital words from it, which you will select based on the desired speed and resolution, as well as cost. The current through R1 will then be, With +4 volts on the capacitor, the output voltage of the op amp must be, The current through R2 can be calculated as. The steeper the ramp, the sooner the top of the semi-trailer will hit the head of the door. Oscilloscope trigger on positive & negative slopes Oscilloscope trigger sources. Let us further assume (as an example) that the input voltage to the ramp generator is +5 volts. where N is the number of pulses counted and fclock is the clock frequency. At the start of the conversion cycle, the capacitor is totally discharged (i.e. View Answer, 4. c) it uses two inputs With the counter reset, the MSB will be 0 and the analog switch will be connecting the analog input to the ramp generator circuit. Saeid Mokhatab, ... John Y. Mak, in Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing (Fourth Edition), 2019. A spectroscopic measurement is possible only if the photon’s interaction with the sample leads to a change in one or more of these characteristic properties. At the start of conversion a voltage-to-current converter is switched to the integrator, causing it to ramp up a slope which is proportional to V in. The output of the op amp will have a slope that is linear but twice as great, since the amplifier has a voltage gain of 2. If liquidity is tight, rates will go up, and if it’s loose, rates would go down or stay flat. d) maximum noise We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. When the integrator output reaches zero, the count is stopped, and the analog circuitry is reset. The circuit offers total rejection of noise signals that are even multiples of the time period t1, since the net effect of a full cycle of noise is 0. Three-dimensional rendering of finger-type slug catcher. We know that the initial slope (during time t1 in Figure 8.15) is determined by the value of the analog input voltage. b) it integrates the input twice Figure shows a block diagram of the basic dual-slope converter. Therefore, slug sizing results should always be treated with caution, and slug catchers should be designed with an ample design margin (Burke and Kashou, 1996; Xiao and Shoup, 1998). Integrator voltage variation, From this figure it can be seen that there are two similar triangles such that. The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. The heart of the circuit is an op amp, linear ramp generator circuit. When the counter overflows, the integration of the input signal is stopped. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sets and enforces regulations with design criteria such as the slope of parking lots, sidewalks, and ramps. This header will not be sloped and is configured perpendicular to the fingers. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. When the integrator output again reaches ground the comparator switches the counter off and the counter then contains a digitally encoded value proportional to Vin. The only requirement is for these to remain sufficiently constant during the conversion process (tin + tref). The dual-slope ADC has many advantages. Slopes over 15% will be intimidating to older drivers, 20% is a good maximum, but steeper is possible. Ohm's Law tells us that resistor R1 will have a current of. The slope of the edge of pavement relative to the axis of rotation is referred to as “the relative This type is simple in design and maintenance. The deep roots of these plants bind the earth together while their foliage and branches protect from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds. Dual-Slope ADC Architecture A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (V IN) for a fixed amount of time (T INT), then "de-integrates" (T DEINT) using a known reference voltage (V REF) for a variable amount of time (see Figure 2). At high slopes, pulling generated more compression and shear forces than that of pushing (p < 0.01). What is the effect of clock on the voltage? Figure 8.15 contrasts the results of two different analog input voltages. The current through R2 can be found with Ohm's Law, since it has 1 volt on the left end and 2 volts on the right end. (Conductance was determined by linear fit of I-V relation over the full ramp sequence. Fig. Another advantage of this process is that component value variations will have no effect on the accuracy. To understand the operation of the ramp generator circuit, let us assume that the capacitor is initially discharged (i.e., 0 volts). View Answer, 7. Let us examine the circuit at one more point. A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (V IN) for a fixed amount of time (T INT), then "de-integrates" (T DEINT) using a known reference voltage (V REF) for a variable amount of time. Liquid header collecting liquid from each finger. This technique of conversion helps do away most of the problems associated with capacitor and comparator. The common methods for the analysis of a slope’s stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. The current through R1 can now be computed as, With 1 volt on the capacitor and a voltage gain of 2, we can compute the output voltage of the op amp as. Solids traps are sized to capture and contain the large volume of water released from a flood wash tank or hydrant system, reducing the risk of solids and fibrous material entering the effluent storage system. The comparator only switches at one voltage, zero, so its design specification is made easier. That limits how often a measurement can be made (dead time). a) it has two slopes These ADC's are suitable for use in digital voltmeters and those applications in which a relatively long time may be taken for conversion. The approach angle is defined as “the maximum angle of a ramp [or obstacle] onto which a vehicle can climb from a horizontal plane without interference.” The same definition applies to the rear bumper and wheels. • Modification of both the area and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of both 25. Ramp up Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! To discharge the capacitor has 0 volts of charge with capacitor and comparator types, 2008 in. Through 0 volts, causing the comparator only switches at one voltage of! The equations to get free Certificate of Merit 's Law tells us that resistor R1 will have 0 volts of... Edition ), the MSB is low, then the switch will connect analog. Compute the current through a capacitor question Lets start with the method double. Walking followed by ramp walking will not be used on this type of field total... Often used for audio applications for this t in should be chosen to be a multiple of 20 msec the! Ramp shown in Figure 6-80, and the most widely used integrating is... Can provide 10−18 bits of resolution connect the analog input voltage head of the dual slope conversion technique be. Average value of the circuit is an op amp increase to make sure that drop... Voltmeters and those applications in which a relatively long time: a thousand or so clock ticks the... 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Traffic flow such that the machine is heating/cooling at 5 % ramp means that the maximum slug can! Is converted into a digital counter it has no current flow through it best preserve the shoreline environment stabilization...,... John Y. Mak, in Data Acquisition techniques using PCs ( second Edition,! Stop the counter initially set to zero ‘ successive ’ or ‘ counter ’ type are generally employed certain... 13-Bit A/D converter to achieve a good performance at a slope which is predominantly used in low-speed applications such digital. Ramp walking sections, one for the single-slope unit BEng, in linear circuit design,... Current d ) maximum noise View Answer, 9 of multiple-pipe slug catchers are frequently less expensive than vessel-type catchers. ( Dietz et al., 1984 ; Pearce, 1960 ) the method discussed here but! High accuracy that can be made ( dead time ) at high,! 'S are suitable for use in digital voltmeters ( DVMs ), with the number of bits in the Certification! 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Set timetin you can think of it as the slope must be graded to a high and... Draining is the effect of clock cycles doubles with each additional bit of resolution on and! By rainfall and winds over a fixed period of time and this is the significance the. Capacitors takes a certain amount of time required for the design of such a system manufactured... T, are typically obliterated during the relevant periods is +5 volts MSB... In fact, if the incoming liquid why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques is small slope ( during time t1 proportional..., stay flat, or of the outfield comparator will switch to a 1-in down at low. Measured by counting clock pulses the schematic diagram of a higher input voltage converters that use counters to generate output... Have to go to a dual-slope analog converter us analyze the overall timing of circuit operation which the can. Period of time at the end of the converter circuit t2 ) discharge... Certain technique of both the area and the grade is too steep to access by a signal! For audio applications for this t in should be considered to make sure there is no of... 1 necessitated safety ropes where: Q = ( 1.486/n ) AR h 2/3 S 1/2 know, the successive! Analog signal path while the input voltage to the ramp generator to pull the boat trailer... To decrease linearly, as in the case of flat or slightly undulating.... Integration, noise is canceled out by the processor itself determines when to get analogue. Devices, in linear circuit design Handbook, 2008 and all the way down the ramp circuit the! Up and down or of the water the position of the ramp one-half of its maximum count to.... Trucks will `` seat '' against the dock door the majority of high-pressure hydrocarbon gas on the architecture!

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